Guided Surgery

The informed choice
for your gallbladder surgery

Learn about the benefits that Fluorescence Guided Surgery can provide

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide with an average number of procedures in the U.S. of over 1,000,000 each year. Although common, laparoscopic cholecystectomy or gallbladder surgery does involve some risk.

  • As many as 7,000 patients per year have a significant complication during their treatment
  • These complications may significantly prolong hospital stays, increase the need for further surgery, markedly elevate hospital costs, and result in long term complications up to and including death.

Whenever possible this surgery is performed by a laparoscopic, or minimally invasive approach. The benefit for patients is a shorter hospital stay and a quicker return to normal activities. While laparoscopic surgery is now the gold standard for gallbladder removal, this advancement in surgery has not led to a reduction in complications. In fact, some parts of gallbladder surgery are more challenging for the surgeon with the laparoscopic approach.1 The most common challenge is to accurately identify critical anatomical structures. In a recently published clinical study, surgeons were able to identify critical anatomy three times better using fluorescence guided surgical techniques.2

Surgeons were able to identify critical anatomy three times better using fluorescence guided surgical techniques.

A common complication during a laparoscopic gallbladder surgery is the necessity to convert to a traditional procedure with a large incision. Most often this is done because of the inability to accurately visualize important anatomy. Switching to an open procedure will likely result in an extended hospital stay and longer recovery for the patient. With addition of fluorescence guidance, the need to switch to an open procedure can be reduced 17 fold.2

When surveyed, a group of internationally recognized surgeons agreed that the use of fluorescence guidance is surgery reduces risks and enhances outcomes for their patients.3 Use the search function below to find a surgeon in your area that employs fluorescence guided surgery.


1. Does near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography with indocyanine green reduce bile duct injuries and conversions to open surgery during laparoscopic or robotic cholecystectomy? – A meta-analysis.. Dip F, Lo Menzo E, White KP, Rosenthal RJ Surgery. 2021 Apr;169(4):859-867.

2. Randomized Trial of Near-infrared Incisionless Fluorescent Cholangiography.
Dip F, LoMenzo E, Sarotto L, Phillips E, Todeschini H, Nahmod M, Alle L, Schneider S, Kaja L, Boni L, Ferraina P, Carus T, Kokudo N, Ishizawa T, Walsh M, Simpfendorfer C, Mayank R, White K, Rosenthal RJ
Ann Surg. 2019 Dec;270(6):992-999.

3. Consensus Conference Statement on the General Use of Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging and Indocyanine Green Guided Surgery: Results of a Modified Delphi Study. Dip F, Boni L, Bouvet M, Carus T, Diana M, Falco J, Gurtner GC, Ishizawa T, Kokudo N, Lo Menzo E, Low PS, Masia J, Muehrcke D, Papay FA, Pulitano C, Schneider-Koraith S, Sherwinter D, Spinoglio G, Stassen L, Urano Y, Vahrmeijer A, Vibert E, Warram J, Wexner SD, White K, Rosenthal RJ
.Ann Surg. 2020 Nov 17.

Fluorescence Guided Imaging use in Gallbladder Surgery
Traditional surgeon's viewSurgeon's view with fluorescence imaging
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Dr. Raul J. Rosenthal

“By using Fluorescence Guided Surgery techniques, a surgeon can clearly visualize each patient’s bile ducts and confidently complete a safe procedure, resulting in improved patient outcomes.”

Dr. Raul J. Rosenthal
Cleveland Clinic, Florida

Patient – Doctor Discussion Guide

Patient Brochure: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy using Fluorescence Guided Surgery

Download and print this informational patient brochure about the use of Fluorescence Guided Imaging in gallbladder surgery and bring it to your doctor to discuss your options.

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